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Fork Lift Truck Safety

By: Jeff Durham - Updated: 21 May 2020 | comments*Discuss
Forklift Lift Truck Forklifts Fork Lift

Forklift trucks are a vital component of many businesses but they account for a large number of accidents each year. These are mainly due to the following reasons:

  • Operator error often due to lack of training
  • Improper forklift truck maintenance and faulty equipment
  • Unsuitable premises

Forklift Truck Training

Proper forklift training is one of the most important aspects of forklift truck safety. It should always be carried out by a qualified instructor (one who is accredited) and should always follow a set procedure.

Firstly, the forklift training should comprise the basic skills and knowledge as to the mechanics of operating a forklift truck safely with the trainee being taught what each of the levers and switches do as well as learning how to manoeuvre it. This should be done in a clear open space and can take several days before moving on to more specific training in relation to the actual job. This is where the trainee should learn how to manoeuvre the forklift in the area in which he/she will actually be operating it. This should always be done under the close supervision of the trainer.

Only when the trainer is satisfied that the person can operate the forklift competently can the driver be left to work unsupervised. That said, regular checks should be made on all forklift truck drivers to ensure that they continue to operate the lift trucks competently and safely. Refresher training courses can be given and it might also be necessary to introduce further training if certain procedures or layouts of a building change.

Authorised Lift Truck Drivers Only

You should never assume that a person who is about to operate a lift truck is qualified to do so. If authorisation falls under your job remit, always ensure that any keys to the lift trucks are removed and handed in to be kept in a secure place once the lift truck is not in use to prevent unauthorised operation. All personnel who need to operate the fork lift trucks should provide you with written authorisation of their completion of forklift training to ensure safety. It goes without saying that anyone whom you suspect may be unfit to operate a lift truck due to being under the influence of Alcohol or Drugs or even due to illness should be prevented from doing so.

Layout and Loads

Wherever a forklift truck is going to be operated, make sure that all the driving areas are as flat as possible and that any gangways or aisles have enough overhead clearance space for the largest lift truck that may be operated in that space. Sharp corners and bends should also be avoided as they can cause collisions and, where possible, it’s a good idea to introduce a one-way system. Although it’s not always possible, you should try to keep pedestrians to a minimum in areas where fork lift trucks are being used and it also increases safety if you fit flashing lights or audible warning devices to warn of the presence of a lift truck close by. Forklift operators must also wear seat belts and, in many cases, a hard hat or helmet and appropriate protective clothing such as gloves and heavy duty boots might be needed.

When it comes to loading fork lift trucks, it’s crucial that the Safe Working Load (SWL) which should be indicated on the lift truck itself is not exceeded and that cages, strong binding or clamps are used to keep the load secure.

Improper Use of Forklift Trucks

All operators should be fully instructed as to the dangers of the improper use of fork lift trucks during their training. This should include not permitting passengers to be carried on any part of the lift truck and no work should ever be allowed where the person is standing on the forks of the lift truck or even a pallet which rests on the forks.


There should be basic routine daily checks made of each forklift before work starts each day and a more comprehensive maintenance check made weekly. A system should also be put in place where all operators know how and where to report defects and any truck that requires maintenance or equipment replacing should be taken out of service until remedial work has been carried out and approved.

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When exiting the truck for any reason or no matter how short a time, should the truck always be in safe parking position? ie handbrake, neutral, forks lowered and tilted forward etc..we are being asked to pull plastic covering from pallets whilst load is elevated and truck is running!
Aldo - 21-May-20 @ 11:20 PM
Ed - Your Question:
Is is unsafe to operate a forklift truck with out properly fitted hi vi's.

Our Response:
Here's what the Health and Safety Executive recommends:
"use other measures such as:
High-visibility clothing for pedestrians where the risks to their safety cannot be adequately controlled by other methods. Lift-truck operators should be provided with such clothing at all times and instructed to wear it whenever they leave the operating position of the lift truck"
SafeWorkers - 13-Feb-18 @ 2:55 PM
Is is unsafe to operate a forklift truck with out properly fitted hi vi's.
Ed - 12-Feb-18 @ 10:14 AM
My partner works in a small warehouse with only himself and 1 other on the warehouse floor while the other employees are in the office upstairs. Whenever the other guy is off work (sickness or holiday) my partner is expected to do all of the work loading the containers using a forklift without anyone else on the warehouse floor.I am worried that this is not safe as should something fall on him trapping, crushing or knocking him unconscious there is no one there to help. There is no radio or communication device provided.Please can anyone tell me if this is legal.
Chez - 15-Dec-17 @ 6:51 PM
Crazy - Your Question:
Should I as a forklift driver be put under pressure to insure a high per centage of drop rate/productivity at work acting in an unsafe manner to provide good service to pickers? How long should each movement take?

Our Response:
We can't give specific details of how long each movement should take, as we don't know anything about your location etc. If you are unhappy with the safety element of any part of your job, raise this with your employer. If you are not satified with the response, try a union rep, ACAS or the HSE.
SafeWorkers - 2-Aug-17 @ 2:41 PM
Should i as a forklift driver be put under pressure to insure a high per centage of drop rate/productivity at work acting in an unsafe manner to provide good service to pickers? How long should each movement take?
Crazy - 31-Jul-17 @ 3:41 PM
I was the only flt driver on shift I had to do 2 peoples jobs and I had an accident no 1 was hurt I wasn't during irraticaly I had lack of concentration due to the amount of pressure I was under I work in a busy production warehouse where trucks and pedestrians aren't separated in have been demoted as the accident could of been more serious even fatal all of the blame has been put on me and no responsibility from the company has been taken for example they should of got additional driver in are there any laws that I can use to put in my appeal stating that flt trucks are dangerous so workload should not be excessive
Wardy - 20-Feb-16 @ 10:42 AM
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